Mars and Water

There is water in Mars.  It is not just a few drops, but significant and in liquid form.  The following photographs show water is even flowing.  The photos are from the Mars Curiosity Rover on its way through Gale Crater during its travels to Mount Sharp.

The comments on the water and each photo are as follows.  In the earlier page, on Mars Anomalies, there are many photos of water in craters on Mars.   On this page the intention is to show water is flowing, and there may be a form of rain, such as a drenching mist, where these photographs were taken.

With regards the Gale Crater it should be understood that the crater is very low, and will tend to have its own micro climate, and just because there is evidence of flowing water in this crater, it does not mean the same can be said for elsewhere.

As to life on Mars, once there is water, yes, it is highly probable.  There has always been evidence of it, such as formaldehyde and methane in the atmosphere, and low level life can live off carbon dioxide, as there are the right minerals in the rocks needed to allow this.


The photograph shows in the distance what appears to be a body of water.  It is blue.  However, that is not the important part of the photo, as the distance is not clear.  Have a look at the puddles in the foreground though.  They have a dark brown shadow on them at the top of the puddle, but they have a paler brown reflection below the shadow.  Further to the left is another puddle, with a shadow and again the reflection of the brown rock behind it.  The water is a coffer brown.  From the centre puddle one can see that it has been running from left to right, as the water gradually trickles down hill.  If you blow the photo up about 450% it is easier to see the water course around the small stones as it makes its way to the right.


This photo shows a recently dried watercourse.  The water runs from right to left and the blue mineral rock catches the water, directing it then to the left.  As the water stops and slows when it hits the blue rock, it deposits its silt.  That is what you see, the silt deposited when the water stops.  Also notice how this silt builds up behind on the left of the small peoples.  The water eddies around the peoples, slows and deposits it silt.  And thus you get a slight build up of silt or sand to the left of each pebble in this water course.


Here is the same water course, but slightly further along.


Here is a low part of Gale Crater.  Those recesses in the rocks definitely appear moist, if not wet.  Notice that the rocks do not have an even cover of the same grade of pale dust, which is in the picture M006.  The fact that the dust is not there, indicates it was removed.  If one challenges the idea there is dust on mars, look at M006 and then M009.


Here are two clear photographs stitched together.  If you look at these rocks, when expanded to about 200%, you will see there is a pinkish sand on the tops of a lot of this surface, but the sand is not there a few inches away from the edge of the rocks.  The edges and the blue mineral rocks appear free of any dust.  They are sharp and dark blue.  One reason for this could be a recent precipitation, which was strong enough to wash away very fine dust that might cling to the sides, but not enough water in the air to wash away the slightly heavier sands that sit atop the blue rocks.

Also note the fine silty layer of material under the blue rocks.  This gives the impression it was washed there.


This is a drill hole created by the rover.  Notice that the spoil from the hole is not brown but grey.  But what is more important is the fact that the dust is otherwise all over the site, and when water that was used to drill the hole was spilled on the dust, it turned the dust a darker brown.  This shows the very top layer here is a very fine layer of brown dust.  So when that dust is not present, what removed it?


Here is a bed of caked rock that is really just hardened clay that has been shrinking from lack of water, when once it was bursting with moisture.  See how the cracks are all over this site.  This is because the clay once had a lot of water and has dried out and so has cracked into many pieces.  We have all seen this on Earth many times.  Also note how some of these cracks seem to have a darker content.  This appears to be because the dust has absorbed moisture from the soil in the crack below.  Notice also an object in the top left that seems to be set on its side, stuck in the silt there.


This is an unusual rock.  Its shiny areas show the dust has not stuck to it.  Look around the rock and see how the blue clay fine material has settled around the rock.  This indicates that the rock is in the way of a slow moving water course and when the water reaches it, it slows, and then deposits it fine blue material around it.


This photograph is not from this mission.  It is an image from Spirit and Opportunity, and shows three dust devils weaving across the landscape.  The point here is to show dust in the air is common.

IMAGE  10:

This is dated 2012-10-04, and is Curiosity Rover’s first year.  See the dark compressed soil holding the shape of the rover’s tire tread.  This indicates moisture in the soil.

IMAGE 11 & 12:

Here the tracks of Curiosity Rover were definitely in moist if not wet ground.  Apart from the dark colour of the tracks,  notice how the soil holds the shape of the tire treads.  This does not happen without the soil also having a relatively high moisture content.

IMAGE  13:

This is a very obvious water course, still very moist.

The next photos show more evidence.  They are self explanatory and each image is worth many paragraphs.

The last many photos on the bottom row come from  The author of that site has gone to great lengths to explain them.

In summary, there is water on Mars.  How much?  Likely very little compared to Earth, obviously.  But it does exist, and is a lot more common that previously thought.  In the summer when the equatorial temperatures rise above freezing, water thaws and flows.  No doubt we will learn more as the Curiosity Rover makes its way to the summit of Mount Sharp over the next twelve months.


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